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Saturday, March 2, 2013

Fish Bone Diagram (Fishbone)

This is not an invitation to enjoy a fish bone like a cat. But the image is also not intended to obscure the topic written about a "fish bone". That is precisely the method / tool called a fish bone diagram (fishbone diagram). Or often called the cause effect diagram. The initiator is a Japanese scientist in the 60's. Named Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a scientist born in 1915 in Japan, which also Tikyo chemical engineering alumni of the University of Tokyo. So often called the Ishikawa diagram. The method was originally used more for quality management. Using the data of verbal (non-numerical) or qualitative data. Dr. Ishikawa also been identified as the first to introduce the 7 tools or methods of quality control (7 tools). That fishbone diagrams, control charts, run charts, histograms, scatter diagrams, Pareto charts, and flowcharts. Fish bone diagram is indeed shaped like the snout of fish bone head facing to the right. This diagram will show an effect or a result of a problem, with a variety of causes. The effect or result is shown as the head of the muzzle. While filled with fish bones causes in accordance with the approach of the problem. Generally, the use of fish bone for product design and prevent bad product quality (defects). Regarding sorting causes, here are some approaches. The 4 M's (used for manufacturing companies): Machine (Equipment), Method (Process / Inspection) Material (Raw, Consumables etc.) Man power. The 8 P's (used in service industries): People Process Policies Procedures Price Promotion Place / Plant Products The 4 S's (used in service industry): Surroundings Suppliers Systems Skills 4 P (approach to marketing management): Price Product Place Promotion simple example of sorting because with a particular approach is the picture on the side. Steps to learn and apply the fish bone diagram is: Focus on one thing due to the observed, in a smaller scope first. Then a great thing if it is trained. For more than one. So do not stop to ask why? Determination of the causes could also brainstorming. Make suggestions on improvement of short-term and long-term causes of the problem. Teamwork and leadership support are important. Keep practicing. The following image is an example of the result of making a fishbone diagram. Story about the search for answers as to why the product of a car manufacturing industry could not walk. The causes are classified according to the assembly operator approach sex (male or female), the environment, methods and materials. The closer the lines for the effect, the more need to be considered. Environmental factors are divided into two sub-sections. Factors namely temperature and light. Chance of light is too much and the temperature is too low. And so on the same analysis of the causes that exist. Then once known exactly causes there, it can be made framework solution. For example, the improvement of the working environment, methods and materials. This chart is more widely adopted by the department of quality in manufacturing or service company. But in other sectors could also be true, such as community service, social and even political. Due to the nature of this method is easy to make and is visual. Although there are weaknesses in the subjectivity of the creator. Reference: Ishikawa, Kaoru (1990); (Translator: JH Loftus), Introduction to Quality Control Dale, Barrie G. et al (2007); Managing Quality 5th ed